عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction:foods functional and their natural products include a wide range of foods that have the potential to improve health and prevent disease due to bioactive components.
Sesame (Sesame indicum) belongs to the Pedaliaceae family and is one of the oldest oilseeds that was first cultivated in Africa and then in India. Sesame contains a significant amount of physiological active ligands (up to 1.5%), Includes lipid-soluble lignans such as cisamine and cisamulin, furfuran, episysamine, and cisaminol glycosides and water-soluble lignans such as triglycoside and monoglucoside.Sisamin lignans in sesame oil has many antioxidant properties.In addition to lignans, sesame seeds also contain tocopherols, mainly gamma tocopherols as antioxidants.Polyphenols are a group of secondary plant metabolites that act as neutralizing free radicals, LDL cholesterol oxidation inhibitors, and DNA breakdowns.Research has also shown that the phenolic content of black sesame is higher than that of white sesame.Sesame seeds are effective in reducing blood lipid and improve lipid profile due to dietary fiber, linoleic acid and lignans. During the defatting of sesame seeds by mechanical method (cold pressed) partially defatted sesame meal is produced, which during the recent years the production of these by products in the country increased.Sesame meal, due to its high protein content, can be a good protein source for replacing other edible protein sources, including cottonseed meal and soybean meal in livestock feeding.The meals used in this experiment contain 39% protein and 24% fat, and can be used especially for replacing with soybean meal insheep feed.Few studies have evaluated the effect of using sesame meal on sheep nutrition.Therefore, the inclusion of sesame meal in sheep feed will in part help producers reduce the impact of the global increase in feed costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sesame meal on performance, blood factors and improve antioxidant activity in fattening lambs.Therefore, the inclusion of sesame meal in sheep feed will in part help producers reduce the impact of the global increase in feed costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sesame meal on performance, blood factors and improve antioxidant activity in fattening lambs.
Material and methods:Twenty-one male lambs with an initial body weight of 30 ± 3 kgwere used in a completely randomized design for an 60-day feeding experiment with a 15-day adaptation period. Experimental treatments included: 1-control diet based (without Sesame meal), 2-diet with 6 % Sesame meal, 3-diet with 12 % Sesame meal.The experimental diets were set using SRNS software (NRC2007). The feed was completely mixed and was given to livestock twice a day at 8:00 am and 4:00 pm. Lambs were weighed on the first day and then every two weeks.In the last week of the experiment, after morning meal (2 hours later), some rumen fluid was removed by the pump and filtered, and then the pH and ammonia nitrogen were measured.At the end of the experimental period, lambs were slaughtered. Sampling of longissimusmusclewas performed between 12th and 13th ribs from the left halves of each carcass. Samples of muscle were dissected and ground to homogeneity for determination of antioxidant Factors.Also blood samples of each animal were centrifuged and stored in the freezer to measure blood and antioxidant parameters. blood parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, albumin, total protein, HDL, LDL, ASAT, ALAT, creatinine) in plasma by using Pars test laboratory kits (Gesan Chem 200 , Italy)Measured. Plasma MDA was measured by the method of Palasser et al. (1996). MDA muscle was measured according to Steering and Chisman (1990). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by FRAP method provided by Bensi et al. (1996).Measurement of fatty acids of sesame meal was done by Fulch et al. (1957). Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and ash was measured by AOAC method (1990) and cell wall with van soest method (1991).
Results and discussion: The results of this experiment showed that the use of sesame meal had no effect on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio, and rumen parameters were not affected by experimental diets.In the present study, plasma glucose concentration did not change between the two treatments supplemented with sesame meal compared to the control treatment. Unchanged blood glucose between diets containing sesame and control diets indicates that sesame has no negative effects on insulin receptors, glucogenesis, glycolysis and glucose oxidation process. In this experiment, HDL level was increased in the experimental treatments, which was significant in the 6% sesame meal treatment compared to the control treatment. Oleic Acid in Sesame Oil Increases High Density Lipoprotein HDL. In human medicine, increasing HDL is a desirable goal in human health because HDL has a negative relationship with heart disease Sesame meal had no effect on serum protein components. In the present study, there was no significant difference between the three experimental treatments in AST and ALT activity. The trans-amination process involves the intermolecular transfer of the amine group from an amino acid donor to a keto acid receptor without the formation of ammonia intermediates. Transaminase plays an important role in mediating metabolism when it provides a means for the synthesis and degradation of amino acids in living cells. The two aminotrans above ALT, AST, occur in almost all animals and humans, but their activity varies considerably in different tissues. The highest AST activity was in the heart while the highest ALT activity was in the liver. Hepatocellular injury results in elevated serum levels of both enzymes (AST and ALT), but overall ALT is more specific in liver injury than AST. Liver function evaluation can be performed by estimating ALT, AST, and ALP activities that are originally present at higher concentrations in the cytoplasm. These enzymes leak into the bloodstream to the extent of liver damage. An increase in the level of serum marker enzymes is one of the most sensitive indicators of liver injury. Sesame meal acts as an important mediator of enzymatic resistance in fat-rich diets that results in obesity and diabetes through its ability to reduce the enhanced activity of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes at the cellular level. Use of sesame meal at 12% level resulted in an increase in total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde reduction in muscle. Overall, high intake of natural antioxidants transfers these molecules to tissues, thereby increasing the total antioxidant capacity. Photochemical compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, phytoestrogens) are glucosinolates and carotenoids. Despite the potential importance of lignans in reducing the risk of disease and cancer, little is known about the metabolic fate of these compounds.
Conclusions:Finally, the use of sesame meal in livestock feeding is a way to reduce feed costs. In addition, the transfer of beneficial ingredients to animal products, while helping the livestock's health, can be used as aenriched food in human nutrition.