عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objective: Milk and other dairy products are important sources of human nutrition for providing protein, vitamins and minerals. Milk fat contains substances known to have anti-cancer properties. Fat milk ruminants due to extensive bio hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen and the synthesis of Short and medium saturated fatty acids in the chest glands have a high concentration of saturated fatty acids. Goat is grown as one of the domestic ruminants in different parts of the world. This livestock produces a variety of products. One of the main goals of breeders is milk production. The small, high adaptability, low tolerance and high resistance of goats to many diseases and unfavorable conditions in the environment have caused the maintenance and cultivation of this animal, especially in rural and small conditions. One of the strategies for livestock breeding is livestock nutrition, which greatly affects the economic aspects of production. The lactating animals during and after the transition period undergo significant changes in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids and minerals. In order to meet the metabolic needs of livestock, different nutritional strategies have been used in this period. Therefore, feeding non forage carbohydrates and fat in the diet or reducing the percentage of milk fat at the start of lactation through some specific fatty acids to reduce energy demand in early lactation it has been used.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of using Cannula seed as a source of fatty acid in corn and barley diets on the functional and metabolic responses of the Mahabadian goat breeder in early lactation. Therefore, the use of fat in the diet has become a management tool in controlling metabolic events around childbirth.
Materials and methods: The treatments consisted of diet based on barley, corn-based diet, barley-based diet with 5 per centage Cannula seed and corn with 5 per centage Cannula seed diet. Treatments were given to TMR as livestock. This experiment was carried out on 16 female Mahabadian goat breeders in the early stage of lactation in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design ( CRD) with two source factors of cereals and Cannula seed. The mean of treatments was compared with Duncan test at 5 per centage level. This study was conducted in a one-month trial period after birth and 14 days of adolescence. During the experimental period, the amount of feed intake and weight gain was recorded. Sampling of feeds to determine dry matter intake and nutrient feedings weekly to measure the amount of organic matter, dry matter, crude protein, insoluble fiber in neutral detergent ( NDF) and Insoluble fiber in acidic detergent ( ADF). In order to determine the blood parameters of the blood sample from the veins and veins of the goats on the final day of the test, 4 hours after the morning meal was taken. The blood samples taken were immediately transferred to the laboratory and after centrifugation at 6000 rpm for 7 minutes, the serum was isolated and kept in the freezer at -20 ° C. Separated serum was used to measure the triglycerides, cholesterol, urea nitrogen, total protein and glucose, using Pars-test and ELISA reader made by Garni Company in Germany. In order to determine the rumen parameters, a sample of rumen fluid in the final day of the test, 4 hours after feeding. The pH of the rumen fluid was measured immediately using pH meter (Schott Titrator Titroline easy model). Rumen fluid samples were smoothed using 4 layer sackcloth and 2 samples of 50 ml of rumen fluid with 1 ml sulfuric acid 50 per centage with a ratio of 1 to 50 sulfuric acid with rumen fluid was mixed to determine the amount of ammonia nitrogen in the rumen fluid and the profile of volatile fatty and immediately and kept in the freezer at -20 ° C until further tests were performed.
Results: addition of canola to feed was not significant on dry mater intake. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP and EE was not significant, but the amount of NDF, ADF decreased. The effect of fatty acid on total cholesterol and total protein was significant and increase this metabolite but no significant changes were observed in albumin, urea, triglyceride and glucose concentrations. Milk composition was not significantly affected by treatments but milk production in corn with canola, barley with canola increased significantly. The pH of the rumen fluid did not change, but the amount of protozoa decreased. The amount of iso-voleric and voleric acid increased from ruminal fluid escaping VFA, but there was no significant change in the amount of propionic acid and butyric acid.
Conclusions: According to the results, it can be concluded that the use of Cannula seed as a source of fatty acid in a grain-based diet improves the performance of lactating goats. Considering that in the majority of studies done in the feeding of oily seeds, a significant decrease in feed intake was reported. Therefore, it seems that using 5 per centage of Cannula seed in corn and barley not only causes Reducing dry matter consumption does not even increase milk production. Therefore, the use of 5 per centage is recommended in grain-based rations at the lactation stage.
The results of this study showed addition of Cannula seed as a source of fatty acid in the diet improved the performance of the Mahabadian goats in the early stages of lactation.