Abascal K and Yarnell E, 2008. Botanical galactagogues. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 288–294.
Agrawal IP, Achar MV, Boradkar RV and Roy N, 1968. Galactagogue action of Cuminum cyminum and Nigella sativa. Ind. J. Medical Research 56: 841–844.
AOAC, 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17thed. Association of official analytical chemists, Arlington, VA.
Barton MD, 2000. Antibiotic use in animal feed and its impact on human health. Nutrition Research and Reviews 13: 279-299.
Barzegar F, 2013. Effects of lime essential oil on milk production and component and blood parameters of Mohabadi Dairy goats. MSc Thesis, Urmia University. 2013. (In Persian)
Bauchart D, 1993. Lipid absorption and transport in ruminants. Journal of Dairy Science76: 3864-3881.
Beauchemin KA and McGinn SM, 2006. Methane emission from beef cattle: Effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil. Journal of Animal Science 84: 1489-1496.
Benchaar C, Chaves AV, Fraser GR, Wang Y, Beauchemin KA and McAllister TA, 2007b. Effects of essential oils and their components on in vitro rumen microbial fermentation. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 87: 413-419.
Benchaar C, Petit HV, Berthiaume R, Ouellet DR, Chiquette J and Chouinard PY, 2007a . Effects of essential oils on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 886–897.
Benchaar C, petit HV, Berthiaume R, Whyte TD and Chouinard PY, 2006a. Effects of addition of essential oils and monensin premix on digestion, ruminal fermentation, milk production and milk composition in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science89: 4352-4364.
Benchaar C, Duynisveld JL and Charmley E, 2006b. Effects of monensin and increasing dose levels of a mixture of essential oil compounds on intake, digestion and growth performance of beef cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 86: 91–96.
Boss D and Bowman J, 1996. Barley varieties for finishing steers: II. Ruminal characteristics and rate, site, and extent of digestion. Journal of Animal Science 74: 1973-1981.
Bown D, 2001. The herb Society of American New Encyclopedia of Herbs and the uses. New York: DK.
Busquet M, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A and Kamel C, 2005a. Screening for the effects of natural plant extracts and secondary plant metabolites on rumen microbial fermentation in continuous culture. Animal Feed Science and Technology 123:597-613.
Busquet M, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A, Cardoz PW and Kamel C, 2005b. Effects of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil on rumen microbial fermentation in a dual flow continuous culture. Journal of Dairy Science88: 2508-2516.
Calsamiglia S, Busquet M and Cardozo PW, 2007. Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation Journal of Dairy Science90: 2580-2595.
Cardozo PW, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A and Kamel C, 2006. Effects of alfalfa extract, anise, capsicum, and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on ruminal fermentation and protein degradation in beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Journal of Animal Science 84: 2801–2808.
Cardozo PW, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A and Kamel C, 2004. Effects of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture. . Journal of Animal Science 82: 3230–3236.
Cardozo PW, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A and Kamel CC, 2005. Screening for the effects of natural plant extracts at different pH on in vitro rumen microbial fermentation of a high-concentrate diet for beef cattle J. Anim. Sci. 83: 2572-2579.
Castillejos L, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A and Losa R, 2007. Effects of dose and adaptation time of a specific blend of essential oils compounds on rumen fermentation. Animal Feed Science and Technology 132: 186–201.
Chaves AV, He ML, Yang WZ, Hristov AN, McAllister TA, and Benchaar C. 2008. Effects of essential oils on proteolytic, deaminative and methanogenic activities of mixed ruminal bacteria Canadian. Journal of Animal Science 88: 117-122.
Diaaz-Maroto MC, Rez-Coello MS, Esteban J and Sanz J, 2006. Comparison of the volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Central Spain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 6814–6818.
Donovan DC, Franklin ST, Chase CCL and Hippen AR, 2002. Growth and health of Holstein calves fed milk replacers supplemented with antibiotics or entero guard. Journal of Dairy Science85: 947-950.
Dorman HJD and Deans SG, 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88: 308-316.
Duffield TF, Rabiee AR and Lean IJ, 2008. A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin in lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science91: 1334-1346.
Ferraretto LF, Crump PM and Shaver RD, 2013. Effect of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows through a meta-analysis. Journal of Dairy Science 96: 533-550.
Fraser GR, Chaves AV, Wang Y, McAllister TA, Beauchemin KA and Benchaar C, 2007. Assessment of the effects of cinnamon leaf oil on rumen microbial fermentation using two continuous culture systems. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 2315-2328.
Gori L, E Gallo, V Mascherini A Mugelli, Vannacci A and Firenzuoli F, 2012. Can estragole in fennel seed decoctions really be considered a danger for human health? A fennel safety update. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Article ID 860542, 10 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/860542
Hristov AN, Ropp JK, Zaman S, Melgar A, 2008. Effects of essential oils on in vitro ruminal fermentation and ammonia release. Animal Feed Science and Technology 144: 55-64.
Kashani S, 2008. Effects of fennel seed on lactation performance and circulating levels of prolactin and growth hormone in Sanjabi ewes. MSc Thesis, Razi University. (In Persian)
Kholif SM, Morsy TA, Abdo MM, Mattlloup OH and Abu El-Ela AA, 2012. Effect of Supplementing Lactating Goats Rations with Garlic, Cinnamon or Ginger Oils on Milk Yield, Milk Composition and Milk Fatty Acids Profile. Journal of life Science 4: 27-34.
Kung LJR, Williams P, Schmidt RJ and Hu W. 2008. A blend of essential plant oils used as an additive to alter silage fermentation or used as a feed additive for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science91:4793-4800.
Mahmoud ALE, 2008. Antifungal action and anti aflatoxigenic properties of some essential oil constituents. Letters in Applied Microbiology 19: 110-113.
Mcguffey RK, Richardson LF and Wilkinson JID, 2001. Ionophores for dairy cattle: Current status and future outlook. Journal of Dairy Science84 (E. Suppl.), E194–E203.
Menke KH and Steingass H, 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal research and Development 28: 7-55.
Mills S and Bone K, 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK.
Morsy TA, Kholif SM, Matloup OH, Abdo MM and El-Shafic MH, 2012. Impact of Anise, Clove and Juniper oils as feed additives on the productive performance of lactating goats. International Journal of Dairy science 7: 20-28.
Overton TR and Waldron MR, 2004. Nutritional management of transition dairy cows: strategies to optimize metabolic health. Journal of Dairy Science 87: E105-E119.
Patra AK, 2011. Effects of essential oils on rumen fermentation, microbial ecology and ruminant production. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 6: 416-428.
Patra AK, Kamra DN and Agarwal N, 2006. Effect of spices on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and protozoa counts in in vitro gas production test. International congress series 1293: 176–179.
Rather MA, BA Dar, SN Sofi, BA Bhat and Qurishi MA, 2016. “Foeniculum vulgare: a comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 9: S1574–S1583.
Reynal SM, Ipharraguerre IR, Lineiro M, Brito AF, Broderick GA and Clark JH, 2007. Omasal flow of soluble proteins, peptids, and free amino acids in dairy cows fed diets supplemented with proteins of varying ruminal degaradibilities. Journal of Dairy Science90:1887-1903.
Saeedi S and Dayyani O, 2014. Effects of fennel seed powder in starter diet on performance of Holstein dairy cows. 6th National congress of Animal Science, University of Tabriz. (In Persian)
Schaneberg BT and Khan IA, 2004. Analysis of products suspected of containing Aristolochia or Asarum species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 94: 245–249.
Shah AH, Qureshi S and Ageel AM, 1991. Toxicity studies in mice of ethanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare fruit and Ruta chalepensis aerial parts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 34: 167–172.
Situ C and Elliott CT, 2005. Simultaneous and rapid detection of five banned antibiotic growth promoters by immunoassay. Analytica Chimica Acta 529: 89-96.
Spanghero M, Zanfi C, Fabbro E, Scicutella N and Camellini C, 2008. Effect of a blend of essential oils on some end products of in vitro rumen fermentation. Animal Feed Science and Technology145: 364-374.
SRNS, 2012. Small ruminant nutrition system, version 1.9.4468. Official website: http://nutritionmodels.tamu.edu/srns.html.
Surber M and Bowman J, 1998. Monensin effects on digestion of corn or barley high concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Science 76: 1945-1954.
Tassoul MD and Shaver RD, 2009. Effect of a mixture of supplemental dietary plant essential oils on performance of periparturient and early lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science92: 1734–1740.
Tedeschi LO, Fox DG and Tylutki TP, 2003. Potential environmental benefits of Ionophores in ruminant diets. Journal of Environmental Quality 32: 1591-1602.
Vakili AR, Khorrami B, DaneshMesgaran M and Parand E, 2013. The effects of thyme and cinnamon essential oils on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolitetes in Holstein calves consuming high concentrate diet. Asian AustralianJournal of Animal Science 26: 935-944.
Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB and Lewis BA, 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 3583-35970.
Wallace RJ, 2004. Antimicrobial properties of plant secondary metabolites. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63: 621-629.
Williams AG and Coleman GS, 1992. The rumen protozoa. Springer-verlag, New York, NY, USA.
Yan L, Wang JH, Kim Q, Meng X, Ao-Hong S and Kim I, 2010. Influence of essential oil supplementation and diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and fecal noxious gas content in grower-finisher pigs. Livestock Science 128:115-122.
Yang WZ, Benchaar C, Ametaj BN, Chaves AV, He ML and McAllister TA, 2007. Effects of garlic and juniper berry essential oils on ruminal fermentation and on the site and extent of digestion in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 5671–5681.
Yang WZ, Benchaar C, Ametaj BN and Beauchemin KA, 2010. Dose response to eugenol supplemention in growing beef fermentation and intestinal digestion. Animal Feed Science and Technology 158:57-64.
Zahedi Moghadam P and Targhibi MR, 2014. Effects of different levels of fennel seed powder on milk production performance of first lactating dairy cows in early lactation. 6th National congress of Animal Science, University of Tabriz. (In Persian).