اثر تغذیه ی منابع کربوهیدرات های غیر فیبری و اسیدهای چرب اشباع و غیر اشباع بر پارامترهای تولیدی و خونی در بزهای شیری مهابادی در دوره انتقال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استاد/دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استادیار گروه علوم دامی دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: مصرف بیش از حد کربوهیدراتهای نشاسته ای سبب ایجاد اسیدوز شده و جایگزینی نشاسته با سایر منابع انرژی زا مانند الیاف یا چربی ضمن تامین انرژی مورد نیاز، مشکلات استفاده از منابع نشاسته ای برای دام را ندارند. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی تأثیر تغذیه منابع کربوهیدرات های غیر فیبری و اسیدهای چرب اشباع و غیراشباع بر تولید و برخی پارامترهای خونی در بزهای شیری مهابادی انجام شد.
مواد و روش ها: از 20 رأس بز شیری مهابادی براساس سن ، وزن بدن و زمان زایش یکی از جیره های آزمایشی شامل 1) جیره ی نشاسته ای با 3٪ ماده خشک اسید پالمیتیک ، 2) جیره ی نشاسته ای با 3٪ ماده خشک اسید چرب امگا 3 ، 3) جیره ی حاوی تفاله چغندر قند با 3٪ ماده خشک اسید پالمیتیک ، 4) جیره حاوی تفاله چغندر قند با 3٪ ماده خشک اسید چرب امگا 3 را دریافت نمودند.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد که جیره های غذایی حاوی اسید های چرب امگا 3 (جیره های غذایی 2 و 4) می توانند منجر به افزایش تولید شیر ، چربی شیر ، پروتئین شیر و مواد جامد در مقایسه با جیره های حاوی اسید پالمیتیک (جیره های 1 و 3)، کاهش تولید اسیدهای چرب C12: 0 ، C16: 0 و C18: 0 و همچنین افزایش تولید اسیدهای چرب C18: 2 ، C18: 3 ، C20: 0 ، C20: 2 و C22: 0 شود. بعلاوه غلظت سرمی کلسترول، تری گلیسیرید، آسپارتات آمینوترانسفراز (AST) و آلانین آمینوترانسفراز(ALT) در بزهای تغذیه شده با جیره های غذایی 2 و 4 کاهش یافت.
نتیجه گیری کلی: با توجه به داده های حاصل از این آزمایش نتیجه گرفت که با تغییرات در جیره غذایی و افزایش مصرف جیره های حاوی قند محلول بالا و اسید های چرب حاوی امگا 3 می توانند تاثیرات مثبت بر پارامترهای تولیدی و خونی داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of different Non-Fiber Carbohydrate Sources and Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Productive and Blood Parameters in Mohabadi Dairy Goats during Transition Period

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elnaz Babaei 1
  • Rasoul Pirmohammadi 2
  • Hamed Khalilvandi-Behroozyar 3
1 Department of Animal Science, Urmia University
2 Department of Animal Science, Urmia University
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal science, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Background and purpose: Pregnancy duration is divided into 3 phases in goats including: day 0 to 50, 50 to 100, and > 100). Transition period is accompanied by metabolic disorders which are minimized by dietary grain and digestible energy concentration. Nutrition can have beneficial effects on the incidence of milk fever in early lactation in the transition period. Animals often face with hypoglycemia and hyperlipidemia in during transition period. Excessive consumption of starch carbohydrates such as barley and maize by the ruminant causes acute or chronic acidosis, so replacing starch with other energy sources such as fibers or fats while supplying the energy needed to handle starch problems For the livestock. In the recent years, new technologies and techniques initiate innovation. Food ingredients are being developed that possess superior functional properties in livestock, because of their role in maintain of health, growth, safety and reproduction. Nutrition is known as one of most important factors influencing and can have beneficial effects on fertility. One of promising strategies is feeding of fatty acids and sources of triacylglycerols (TAG). It is well-known that the n-3 fatty acids are necessary in mammals, especially for the fetus. It is well-known that the n-3 fatty acids are necessary in all mammals, especially for the fetus and the neonate. It is known that lipid supplementing improves energy balance and enhances the overall dietary energy content and finally promotes milk production. Omega-3 fatty acids are known to have antioxidant effects that play a critical role in the development and functioning of the central nervous system. There is no any data in literatures on the effect of non-fiber carbohydrate sources and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on productive and metabolic parameters in Mahabadi lactating goats. It was hypothesized that non-fiber carbohydrate sources and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids may alleviate adverse effects of productive and metabolic parameters in Mahabadi lactating. Thus, for first time, this study evaluated the effects of feeding non-fiber carbohydrate sources and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on productive and metabolic parameters in Mahabadi lactating goats during transition period.
Material and Methods: In this study, twenty multiparous Mahabadi goats with body weight ranged from 47 to 50 kg and age range of 3-4 years were used. Goats were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 5 animals in per treatment in a completely randomized design. Animals were randomly allocated into 4 treatments based on age, body weight, and parity. Experimental treatments were including 1) Starch diets with 3 % DM palmitic acid, 2) Starch diet with 3% DM omega 3, 3) diet containing beet pulp with 3% DM palmitic acid, 4) diet containing beet pulp with 3% DM omega 3. The isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated based on NRC (2007) by SRNS software. Feed samples were fined by a Wiley mill by using a 1-mm screen and analyzed for dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), and ether extract. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were assessed by Van Soest et al. (1991). All analyses were conducted twice. Milk composition including fat, protein, and lactose was measured by Milko & Scan apparatus. Serum total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined using commercial kits (Pars Azmoon-Iran). Serum proteins were isolated in order to evaluate the protein fractions into albumins, α1, α2, β1, β2 and γ-globulins (γG). At same days, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured using the kit from Binding Site Ltd. (Birmingham, UK). This experiment was conducted by Factorial design based on complete randomized design in 9.4 version of SAS software. Duncan procedure was used to evaluate the data. The data were analyzed by SAS software and Duncan test. Statistical model used were as follows;
Yijk=U+Ai+Bj+ABij+Eijk
Where Yij is observations, μ is mean, Aj is effect of carbohydrate sources, Bj is effect of fatty acid sources, ABij is interaction effect of fatty acids and carbohydrate and eij is error effect.
Results: Results indicated that omega 3 diets (diets 2 & 4) could increase milk production, milk fat, milk protein and total solids in comparison to palmitic acid diets (diets 1 & 3) (p < 0.05). However, it was no observed significant difference between diets 2 and 4 for milk production, milk fat, milk protein and total solids (P>0.05). More ever experimental diets did not affect production of fatty acids C4:0 up to C10:0, C14:0, C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1 (P>0.05) but providing diets 2 & 4 decreased production of fatty acids C12:0, C16:0 and C18:0 and also increased production of fatty acids C18:2, C18:3, C20:0, C20:2 and C22:0. It was no observed significant difference between diets 2 & 4 for mentioned fatty acids. Providing diets to goats did not have significant effects on total protein, albumin, , β and γ protein (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, AST and ALT were decreased in goats fed with diets 2 & 4. However, goats receiving the diet 3 also showed lower levels for liver enzymes (p < 0.05). Goats fed with diets 2 & 4 showed higher titer for IgG in comparison to other treatments (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Dietary inclusion of omega 3 with and without non-fiber carbohydrate could improve milk production and composition. It also improved lipid profile in milk and serum, liver enzymes and immunity. It can be recommended to use omega 3 in order to improve the milk composition, milk production and immunity in goat in transition period. In general, it can be concluded that omega 3 oils can have beneficial on productive and blood parameters.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Unsaturated fatty acids
  • Non-fibrous carbohydrates
  • Starch
  • pectin
  • transition period
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