عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction:Microbial products or probiotics can be added to animal feed and can have a positive effect on improving animal performance and enhancing the growth of young ruminants by maintaining a microbial balance in the intestinal flora and preventing gastrointestinal infections (Noori et al. 2016). The use of bacterial probiotics in replacing milk of suckling animals has improved the feed conversion ratio (Noori et al. 2016) and increased daily weight gain (Kawakami et al. 2010). Improving animal weight gain by feeding probiotic-containing treatments may be due to improvements in microbial ecology (Lascano et al. 2009) and increased nutrient uptake (Khutia and Chayyaderi 2002) and improved feed conversion ratio. The effects of bacterial probiotic use on different performance, health status, and blood counts have been reported, and differences in results may be due to the type of probiotic used, the type of food consumed, the level of management, the method of probiotic use, and environmental conditions (Agarvall 2002). The results of a study showed that the production of growth factors (organic acids, B vitamins and amino acids), creating anaerobic conditions and increasing the growth of cellulosic bacteria and lactate consumption are among the mechanisms of probiotics in increasing the digestibility of food nutrients (Riedel et al. 2010).Considering the benefits of using probiotics in feeding young ruminants and suckling calves to improve growth performance as well as reduce antibiotic use and most importantly healthy growth and breeding of lambs that can in the future replace herds of mature ewes and rams, and ensure the economic future and Herd health of the herd. And also because of the lack of study on the use of these microbial additives orally in lambs and lactating Bakhtiari ewes, so this study investigates the probiotic effects of protexin on blood hematological parameters of lactating Bakhtiari lambs.
Materials and methods: In this experiment, 28 ewes with one to multiparous were used. The ewes were divided into two groups. One group (14 head) received no probiotics and the other group (14 head) received 2% (v / w) solution (one gram of probiotic dissolved in five ml of water) per day of probiotics through oral and syringe one month until parturition. Probiotics were discontinued at parturition. The lambs born of these ewes were 28 (male and female). Treatments included 1) Control treatment (non-reception of probiotics by lambs and ewes), 2) Receive 1 g of probiotic by ewes, 3) Receive 0.2 g of probiotic by lambs 4) Receive 0.2 g of probiotics by lambs and 1 g of probiotics by ewes. The lambs were weighed weekly at birth and up to five weeks after birth. In order to measure hematologic and hematological parameters on 3, 14 and 21 days after the morning and by applying food restriction for 2 to 4 hours, blood was taken through the vein from all lambs. Blood samples were taken at 3, 14 and 21 days to measure hematological and blood parameters. Hematological parameters included eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, hematocrits and white blood cells. Blood parameters included glucose, albumin, total protein, globulin, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamine transferase, acute phase proteins, oxaloallastic transaminase glutamate, and iron oxalate, including copper and iron, including calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc. Hematology supplements and blood suppositories were determined using an autoanalyzer (model BT 1500, made in Italy).
Results and discussion:The effect of protexin probiotic on body weight in lambs was not significant (p>0.05). Consistent with this result, the use of probiotic supplementation in lamb feeding during the experiment did not have any significant effect on daily weight gain (Baranowski et al. 2007). The effectiveness of compounds such as probiotics, which have different microorganisms, varies and depends on the composition of the animal's diet and nutritional needs, and may be ineffective with the slightest change. Therefore, animal feed management includes feed supply (completely mixed feed, separate forage and concentrate feed), number of feed times and physical shape of feed, chemical composition of feed including forage to concentrate ratio, dietary nutrient percentage, dietary effective fiber percentage and forage type. And the concentrate used in this study can be considered as a possible cause of differences in results. The effect of treatment on hematological data including eosinophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, hematocrit and white blood cell concentration in lambs was not significant (p>0.05). Hematological parameters are important in determining the functional status of animals. Consistent with this, in a report with the addition of biofeedback probiotics in the last month of gestation and by the end of lactation, lambs' red blood cell counts, neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, and isosophils percentages were significantly affected at the start and end of the experiment. Regarding the blood parameters, the effect of treatment on the concentration of albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, triglyceride, globulin, gamma glutamine transferase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glucose, albumin to globulin ratio, and Acute phase proteins was not significant lambs (p>0.05). Supplementation of lambs with probiotic had no statistically significant effect on total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentrations in the pre-weaning period (Salim et al. 2017). Also, the addition of probiotics protexin to blood minerals (calcium, zinc, iron, copper) in lambs was not significant (p>0.05). Consistent with our results, no significant effect on blood phosphorus and calcium concentrations was observed with probiotic supplementation of zovitis (Dimova et al. 2013)..
Conclusion:Probiotic supplementation of protexin had no significant effect on lamb weight, hematological parameters and blood parameters. This indicates that this probiotic had no positive effect on lambs. Amounts and more levels of this probiotic are needed to achieve a rational response in lambs.
Keywords: Acute phase proteins, albumin to globulin ratio, blood minerals, body weight, hematocrit, white blood cells